J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2019; 45(6): 302~308
Cervico-stylo-mandibular complex fracture: a critical review of literature along with a protocol to recognize and proposal of a new classification
Nanda Kishore Donepudi, Vinayak Gourish Naik, Kirthi Kumar Rai
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bapuji Dental College & Hospital, Davangere, India
Vinayak Gourish Naik
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bapuji Dental College & Hospital, PO Box #326, Davangere 577004, Karnataka, India
TEL: +91-8192-220335 FAX: +91-8192-220578
E-mail: drvinayakgn@gmail.com
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0323-8589
Received January 12, 2019; Revised May 6, 2019; Accepted June 12, 2019.; Published online December 31, 2019.
© The Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Fractures of the styloid process of the temporal bone may occur with or without an obvious relation to trauma. The incidence of either isolated styloid process fracture or in combination with mandibular fractures is rare, and such occurrences are often misdiagnosed or neglected. A fractured styloid when displaced may impinge on adjacent vital structures, leading to neurological or vascular symptoms that vary according to the anatomical structure compressed. Styloid process fractures associated with atlas/C1 fractures have also been rarely reported in the literature. In this review of literature, the majority of patients was treated conservatively, as few demonstrated the necessity of surgical intervention. There is a definitive need for a protocol to recognize and classify styloid fractures to plan for further treatment. The aim of this review was to achieve a comprehensive understanding of all types of styloid fractures, determine the clinical severity of symptoms, and to consider management and prognosis. In addition, a new classification of cervico-stylo-mandibular fractures is proposed based on important evidence in the literature regarding clinical and radiographic factors that might influence the treatment and prognosis of such fractures.
Keywords: Styloid process fractures, Cervico-stylo-mandibular fractures, Classification


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31 December 2019
Vol. 45
No. 6 pp. 301~378

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