J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 43(4): 221~228
Maximal strength and endurance scores of the tongue, lip, and cheek in healthy, normal Koreans
Dong-Min Jeong1, Yoo-Jin Shin1, Na-Ra Lee2, Ho-Kyung Lim3, Han-Wool Choung1, Kang-Mi Pang1,2, Bong-Ju Kim2,4, Soung-Min Kim1,4, Jong-Ho Lee1,2,4
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University,
2Clinical Translational Research Center for Dental Science, Seoul National University Dental Hospital,
3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital,
4Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Jong-Ho Lee
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, SeoulNational University, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
TEL: +82-2-2072-2630 FAX: +82-2-766-4948 E-mail: leejongh@snu.ac.kr ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8843-545X
Received May 6, 2017; Accepted June 5, 2017.; Published online August 31, 2017.
© Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for healthy Korean adults by measuring the maximal strength and endurance scores of the tongue, lip, and cheek, and to examine correlations between these measurements.
Materials and Methods: This study included 120 subjects that were divided into three groups according to age: young (20-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (over 60 years); and by gender. Measurements were taken using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI).
Results: The mean maximal tongue strengths were as follows: young men (46.7±10.2 kPa) and women (32.1±7.9 kPa), middle-aged men (40.9±9.3 kPa) and women (36.9±8.6 kPa), and older men (35.2±9.0 kPa) and women (34.5±6.9 kPa). The mean tongue endurance scores were: young men (28.8±12.6 seconds) and women (20.8±13.5 seconds), middle-aged men (17.0±8.5 seconds) and women (15.3±5.2 seconds), and older men (15.8±6.7 seconds) and women (17.9±8.1 seconds). The mean maximal lip strengths were: young men (11.6±3.0 kPa) and women (11.4±3.8 kPa), middle-aged men (11.4±4.2 kPa) and women (11.1±5.1 kPa), and older men (14.5±3.9 kPa) and women (11.7±2.6 kPa). The mean lip endurance scores were: young men (41.1±23.9 seconds) and women (22.4±21.7 seconds), middle-aged men (24.3±10.3 seconds) and women (30.5±13.4 seconds), and older men (24.9±11.0 seconds) and women (12.8±7.6 seconds). The mean maximal cheek strengths were: young men (24.5±4.6 kPa) and women (20.5±4.3 kPa), middle-aged men (25.2±6.4 kPa) and women (21.2±5.5 kPa), and older men (22.4±5.3 kPa) and women (18.0±4.8 kPa). The mean cheek endurance scores were: young men (47.8±24.4 seconds) and women (43.9±25.0 seconds), middle-aged men (27.3±11.3 seconds) and women (20.0±14.6 seconds), and older men (21.7±14.5 seconds) and women (17.2±11.4 seconds).
Conclusion: The data collected in this study will provide an important database of standardized measurements for maximal strength and endurance scores of the tongue, lip and cheek in healthy, normal Koreans.
Keywords: Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), Tongue, Lip, Cheek, Korean


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