J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 43(3): 204~211
Use of elevator instruments when luxating and extracting teeth in dentistry: clinical techniques
John Mamoun
Private Practice, Manalapan, NJ, USA
John Mamoun
Private Practice, 100 Craig Road, Suite 106, Manalapan, NJ 07726, USA
TEL: +1-732-431-2888 FAX: +1-732-637-8224 E-mail: mamounjo@gmail.com ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9975-5141
Received October 29, 2016; Accepted December 21, 2016.; Published online June 30, 2017.
© Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
In dentistry, elevator instruments are used to luxate teeth, and this technique imparts forces to tooth particles that sever the periodontal ligament around tooth roots inside the socket and expand alveolar bone around tooth particles. These effects can result in extraction of the tooth particles or facilitate systematic forceps extraction of the tooth particles. This article presents basic oral surgery techniques for applying elevators to luxate teeth. Determination of the optimal luxation technique requires understanding of the functions of the straight elevator and the Cryer elevator, the concept of purchase points, how the design elements of elevator working ends and tips influence the functionality of an elevator, application of forces to tooth particles, sectioning teeth at furcations, and bone removal to facilitate luxation. The effectiveness of tooth particle luxation is influenced by elevator tip shape and size, the magnitude and the vectors of forces applied to the tooth particle by the tip, and sectioning and bone removal within the operating field. Controlled extraction procedures are facilitated by a dental operating microscope or the magnification of binocular surgical loupes telescopes, combined with co-axial illumination.
Keywords: Dental instruments, Dentistry, Surgery, Oral, Tooth extraction


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31 October 2017
Vol. 43
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