J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 43(2): 70~76
Short dental implants in the posterior maxilla: a review of the literature
Zeinab Rezaei Esfahrood1, Loghman Ahmadi2, Elahe Karami2, Shima Asghari3
1Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
2Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd,
3International Branch, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Elahe Karami
Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8914815667, Iran
TEL: +98-353625881-3
FAX: +98-3536250344
E-mail: e.karami1361@gmail.com
Received February 12, 2016; Revised April 24, 2016; Accepted May 4, 2016.; Published online April 30, 2017.
© Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
The purpose of this study was to perform a literature review of short implants in the posterior maxilla and to assess the influence of different factors on implant success rate. A comprehensive search was conducted to retrieve articles published from 2004 to 2015 using short dental implants with lengths less than 10 mm in the posterior maxilla with at least one year of follow-up. Twenty-four of 253 papers were selected, reviewed, and produced the following results. (1) The initial survival rate of short implants in the posterior maxilla was not related to implant width, surface, or design; however, the cumulative success rate of rough-surface short implants was higher than that of machined-surface implants especially in performance of edentulous dental implants of length <7 mm. (2) While bone augmentation can be used for rehabilitation of the atrophic posterior maxilla, short dental implants may be an alternative approach with fewer biological complications. (3) The increased crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio and occlusal table (OT) values in short dental implants with favorable occlusal loading do not seem to cause peri-implant bone loss. Higher C/I ratio does not produce any negative influence on implant success. (4) Some approaches that decrease the stress in posterior short implants use an implant designed to increase bone-implant contact surface area, providing the patient with a mutually protected or canine guidance occlusion and splinting implants together with no cantilever load. The survival rate of short implants in the posterior edentulous maxilla is high, and applying short implants under strict clinical protocols seems to be a safe and predictable technique.
Keywords: Dental implants, Maxilla


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30 April 2017
Vol. 43
No. 2 pp. 61~143

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